© 2007-2011 IEEE. Photovoltaic (PV) energy has grown at an average annual rate of 60% in the last five years, surpassing one third of the cumulative wind energy installed capacity, and is quickly becoming an important part of the energy mix in some regions and power systems. This has been driven by a reduction in the cost of PV modules. This growth has also triggered the evolution of classic PV power converters from conventional single-phase grid-tied inverters to more complex topologies to increase efficiency, power extraction from the modules, and reliability without impacting the cost. This article presents an overview of the existing PV energy conversion systems, addressing the system configuration of different PV plants and the PV converter topologies that have found practical applications for grid-connected systems. In addition, the recent research and emerging PV converter technology are discussed, highlighting their possible advantages compared with the present technology.
Kouro, S., Leon, J. I., Vinnikov, D., & Franquelo, L. G. (2015). Grid-connected photovoltaic systems: An overview of recent research and emerging PV converter technology. IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, 47-61. https://doi.org/10.1109/MIE.2014.2376976