© 2017, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. The possible amplification of leptons and quarks in exotic scalar interactions in the nuclear medium violates lepton number conservation. This effect results in various neutrino masses that are measured experimentally, on the one hand, in 0-decay and, on the other, in β-decay of tritium and in cosmology.
Šimkovic, F., Krivoruchenko, M. I., & Kovalenko, S. (2017). Neutrinoless double beta-decay and neutrino nonstandard interactions. Physics of Particles and Nuclei, 1023-1025. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1063779617060521