Source apportionment of PM<inf>10</inf>and PM<inf>2.5</inf>in five Chilean cities using factor analysis

Ilias G. Kavouras, Petros Koutrakis, Francisco Cereceda-Balic, Pedro Oyola

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103 Citations (Scopus)


Chile is a fast-growing country with important industrial activities near urban areas. In this study, the mass and elemental concentrations of PM10and PM2.5were measured in five major Chilean urban areas. Samples of particles with diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) and 2.5 μm (PM2.5) were collected in 1998 in Iquique (northern Chile), Valparaíso, Viña del Mar, Rancagua (central Chile), and Temuco (southern Chile). Both PM10and PM2.5annual mean concentrations (PM10: 56.9-77.6 μg/m3; PM2.5: 22.4-42.6 μg/m3) were significantly higher than the corresponding European Union (EU) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) air quality standards. Moreover, the 24-hr PM10and PM2.5U.S. standards were exceeded infrequently for some of the cities (Rancagua and Valparaíso). Elements ranging from Mg to Pb were detected in the aerosol samples using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). For each of the five cities, factor analysis (FA) was applied to identify and quantify the sources of PM10and PM2.5. The agreement between calculated and measured mass and elemental concentrations was excellent in most of the cities. Both natural and anthropogenic sources were resolved for all five cities. Soil and sea were the most important contributors to coarse particles (PM10-PM2.5), whereas their contributions to PM2.5were negligible. Emissions from Cu smelters and oil refineries (and/or diesel combustion) were identified as important sources of PM2.5, particularly in the industrial cities of Rancagua, Valparaíso, and Viña del Mar. Finally, motor vehicles and wood burning were significant sources of both PM2.5and PM10in most of the cities (wood burning was not identified in Iquique).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)451-464
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of the Air and Waste Management Association
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2001

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