© 2002-2012 IEEE. Theory of normal mode propagation in a line-of-sight street scenario is extended to include propagation into buildings through coupling to a diffuse indoor field. Signal strength predictions are in close agreement with measurements, producing 2 dB and ≤ 3.5 dB root-mean-square model-data difference, in line-of-sight and outdoor-indoor scenarios, respectively. The full 3-D field model predicts actual signal directions and antenna correlations as a function of range, important for evaluating performance of directional antennas and spatial diversity. Only minimal description of the environment is needed, i.e., street width and representative building wall properties, without any interior details.
Chizhik, D., Rodriguez, M., Feick, R., & Valenzuela, R. A. (2017). An Accurate Field Model Requiring Minimal Map Data for Guiding and Diffusion in Streets and Buildings. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 4537-4546. https://doi.org/10.1109/TWC.2017.2699632